Skip to main content

Table 4 Reference point and plane [21, 22] (Figs. 1, 2)

From: Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of mandibule in coronal plane after bimaxillary rotational surgery

Landmark Description
PorionRt (PoRt) The most superior point of the Rt. EAM
PorionLt (PoLt) The most superior point of the Rt. EAM
Oribitale (Or) The midpoint of the infraorbital margin
Oribitale (Or) The midpoint of the infraorbital margin
PNS Tip of the posterior nasal spine
GonionRt (GoRt) Most inferior, posterior, outward point on the Rt. mandibular angle
GonionLt (GoLt) Most inferior, posterior, outward point on the Lt. mandibular angle
Menton (Me) Most inferior point on the symphysis outline
CondylionRt (CdRt) Most superior point on the head of the Rt. mandibular condyle
CondylionLt (CdLt) Most superior point on the head of the Lt. mandibular condyle
Nasion (Na) The most anterior point of the nasofrontal suture on the midsagittal plane
Bagion (Ba) The midpoint of the anterior border of the foramen magnum
Plane
 HRP Horizontal reference plane: PoRt-OrRt.-PoLt
 SRP Sagittal reference plane: perpendicular to HRP including Na-Ba line
 CP Coronal plane: perpendicular to HRP and SRP, measurement plane