Skip to main content

Table 1 Staging and treatment strategies described by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons position paper on MRONJ of the jaw

From: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: a preliminary retrospective study of 130 patients with multiple myeloma

MRONJ staging Description Treatment strategies
At risk category No apparent necrotic bone in patients who have been treated with either oral or IV bisphosphonates No treatment indicated
Patient education
Stage 0 No clinical evidence of necrotic bone but non-specific clinical findings and symptoms Systemic management, including use of pain medication and antibiotics
Stage 1 Exposed and necrotic bone in patients who are asymptomatic and have no evidence of infection Antibacterial mouth rinse.
Clinical follow-up on a quarterly basis.
Patient education and review of indications for continued bisphosphonate therapy.
Stage 2 Exposed and necrotic bone associated with infection as evidenced by pain and erythema in the region of the exposed bone with or without purulent drainage Symptomatic treatment with oral antibiotics.
Oral antibacterial mouth rinse.
Pain control.
Superficial debridement to relieve soft tissue irritation.
Stage 3 Exposed and necrotic bone in patients with pain, infection, and one or more of the following: exposed and necrotic bone extending beyond the region of alveolar bone (i.e., inferior border and ramus in the mandible, maxillary sinus and zygoma in the maxilla) resulting in pathologic fracture, extra-oral fistula, oral antral/oral nasal communication, or osteolysis extending to the inferior border of the mandible of sinus floor Antibacterial mouth rinse.
Antibiotic therapy and pain control.
Surgical debridement/resection for long-term palliation of infection and pain.