Landmarks

B point (B)

Innermost curvature from chin to alveolar bone junction

Menton (Me)

Lowest point on symphysis of mandible

Pogonion (Pog)

Most anterior point on contour of chin

A point (A)

Innermost curvature from maxillary anterior nasal spine to crest of maxillary alveolar process

Coronoid process (Cp)

Tip of coronoid process

Planes

Frankfurthorizontal (FH) plane

Plane formed by right Po and both sides of Or

Midsagittal reference (MSR) plane

Perpendicular to FH plane and passing through Na and Ba

Sperpendicular plane (Sperp)

Perpendicular to FH and MSR planes and passing through Sella

Distances

B point to Sperp (B^{s})

Distance from B point to Sperpendicular plane

Menton to Sperp (Me^{s})

Distance from menton to Sperpendicular plane

Pogonion to FH plane (Pog^{f})

Distance from pogonion to FH plane

A point to Sperp (A^{s})

Distance from A point to Sperpendicular plane

Coronoid process to FH plane (Cp^{f})

Distance from tip of coronoid process to FH plane

Occlusal vertical distance (VD)

Distance from mesial contact of upper 1st molar to that of lower 1st molar

Indicators

Final setback of B point \( \left({\mathrm{B}}_{20}^{\mathrm{s}}\right) \)

B^{s} changes from T
_{0} to T
_{2}, combined effects of surgery and orthodontic treatment over presurgical (T
_{0}) to posttreatment period (T
_{2})

Surgical setback of B point \( \left({\mathrm{B}}_{10}^{\mathrm{s}}\right) \)

B^{s} changes from T
_{0} to T
_{1}, surgical effects measured over presurgical (T
_{0}) to postsurgical period (T
_{1})

Surgical setback of menton \( \left({\mathrm{Me}}_{10}^{\mathrm{s}}\right) \)

Me^{s} changes from T
_{0} to T
_{1}, surgical effects measured over presurgical (T
_{0}) to postsurgical period (T
_{1})

Surgical upward movement of pogonion \( \left({\mathrm{Pog}}_{10}^{\mathrm{f}}\right) \)

Pog^{f} changes from T
_{0} to T
_{1}, surgical effects measured over presurgical (T
_{0}) to postsurgical period (T
_{1})

Postsurgical horizontal position of A point \( \left({\mathrm{A}}_1^{\mathrm{s}}\right) \)

Distance from A point to Sperpendicular plane measured at T
_{1}

Postsurgical vertical position of coronoid process \( \left({\mathrm{Cp}}_1^{\mathrm{f}}\right) \)

Distance from tip of coronoid process to FH plane measured at T
_{1}
