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Table 1 Model-relevant landmarks, planes, distances, and indicators

From: Qualitative correlation between postoperatively increased vertical dimension and mandibular position in skeletal class III using partial-least-square path modeling

Terms Definitions
Landmarks
 B point (B) Innermost curvature from chin to alveolar bone junction
 Menton (Me) Lowest point on symphysis of mandible
 Pogonion (Pog) Most anterior point on contour of chin
 A point (A) Innermost curvature from maxillary anterior nasal spine to crest of maxillary alveolar process
 Coronoid process (Cp) Tip of coronoid process
Planes
 Frankfurt-horizontal (FH) plane Plane formed by right Po and both sides of Or
 Midsagittal reference (MSR) plane Perpendicular to FH plane and passing through Na and Ba
 S-perpendicular plane (S-perp) Perpendicular to FH and MSR planes and passing through Sella
Distances
 B point to S-perp (Bs) Distance from B point to S-perpendicular plane
 Menton to S-perp (Mes) Distance from menton to S-perpendicular plane
 Pogonion to FH plane (Pogf) Distance from pogonion to FH plane
 A point to S-perp (As) Distance from A point to S-perpendicular plane
 Coronoid process to FH plane (Cpf) Distance from tip of coronoid process to FH plane
 Occlusal vertical distance (VD) Distance from mesial contact of upper 1st molar to that of lower 1st molar
Indicators
 Final setback of B point \( \left({\mathrm{B}}_{20}^{\mathrm{s}}\right) \) Bs changes from T 0 to T 2, combined effects of surgery and orthodontic treatment over presurgical (T 0) to posttreatment period (T 2)
 Surgical setback of B point \( \left({\mathrm{B}}_{10}^{\mathrm{s}}\right) \) Bs changes from T 0 to T 1, surgical effects measured over presurgical (T 0) to postsurgical period (T 1)
 Surgical setback of menton \( \left({\mathrm{Me}}_{10}^{\mathrm{s}}\right) \) Mes changes from T 0 to T 1, surgical effects measured over presurgical (T 0) to postsurgical period (T 1)
 Surgical upward movement of pogonion \( \left({\mathrm{Pog}}_{10}^{\mathrm{f}}\right) \) Pogf changes from T 0 to T 1, surgical effects measured over presurgical (T 0) to postsurgical period (T 1)
 Postsurgical horizontal position of A point \( \left({\mathrm{A}}_1^{\mathrm{s}}\right) \) Distance from A point to S-perpendicular plane measured at T 1
 Postsurgical vertical position of coronoid process \( \left({\mathrm{Cp}}_1^{\mathrm{f}}\right) \) Distance from tip of coronoid process to FH plane measured at T 1