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Table 1 Facial surface landmarks and method of measurement undertaken

From: Validation of a new three-dimensional imaging system using comparative craniofacial anthropometry

Measurement Definition Calliper/surface measurement Instrument used for manual measurement
Face
 Maxillary depth sn-t Calliper-sagittal/surface Spreading and tape
 Mandibular depth gn-t Calliper-sagittal/surface Spreading and tape
 Morphological face height n-gn Calliper-vertical Spreading
 Chin height sl-gn Calliper-vertical Sliding
Orbit
 Intercanthal width en-en Calliper-horizontal Sliding
 Biocular width ex-ex Calliper-horizontal Sliding
Nose
 Nose height n-sn Calliper-vertical Sliding
 Nasal tip protrusion sn-prn Calliper-sagittal Sliding
 Columella length sn-c Calliper-sagittal Sliding
 Alar surface length ac-prn Calliper-sagittal Sliding and tape
Mouth
 Labial fissure width ch-ch Calliper-horizontal Sliding
 Upper lip height sn-sto Calliper-vertical Sliding
 Upper Vermillion height ls-sto Calliper-vertical Sliding
 Lower vermillion height sto-li Calliper-vertical Sliding
 Lower lip height sto-sl Calliper-vertical Sliding
  1. ac alar curvature point, c columella apex, ch cheilion, en endocanthion, ex exocanthion, gn gnathion, li labrale inferius, ls labrale superius, n nasion, prn pronasale, sl sublabiale, sn subnasale, sto stomion, t tragion (Definitions as per Naini [35])