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Table 1 Subcutaneous emphysema caused by air-powder instruments (1987 to date)

From: Emphysema following air-powder abrasive treatment for peri-implantitis

Reference Age, years/sex Procedure Suspected cause Distribution Treatment and antibiotics Cx
Finlayson & Stevens (1988) [17] 49/male Tooth stain removal Air polishing (Cavi-jet®) Subcutaneous Penicillin (IV) 4 times/day for 7 days
Bergendal et al. (1990) [13] 40/female Calculus removal for peri-implantitis Air-powder abrasive (Prophy-Jet®) Subcutaneous Local application of 0.2% Hibitane®, no infection, no antibiotics
Liebenberg & Crawford (1997) [14] 16/female Cleaning dental stains Air-powder abrasive Subcutaneous, pneumomediastinum No antibiotics; resolved within 7 days
Strassen et al. (2011) [19] 52/male Tartar removal Air-powder abrasive (CaCO2 Powder Jet) Subcutaneous, pneumomediastinum Sultamicin 1.5 g 3 times/day (IV); resolved within 4 days
Bassetti et al. (2014) [16] 69/malea Treatment for peri-implantitis Air-powder abrasive (Air-Flow Master®, glycine powder) Subcutaneous, pneumomediastinum Amoxicillin/clavulinic acid 2.2 g (IV); resolved within 7 days
Alonso et al. (2017) [15] 73/male Peri-implant cleaning Air-powder polishing (sodium bicarbonate powder) Subcutaneous Methylprednisolone, 40 mg (intramuscular) + azithromycin, 500 mg/day for 3 days; resolved 4 days
43/male Teeth cleaning Air-powder polishing (sodium bicarbonate powder) Subcutaneous, pneumomediastinum 12 h of observation, no antibiotics; resolved 3 to 4 days
62/female Teeth cleaning Air powder polishing (sodium bicarbonate powder) Subcutaneous Ibuprofen, 600 mg/8 h for 5 days and azithromycin 500 mg/day for 3 days; resolved within 5 days
Current report 51/femalea Cleaning for peri-implantitis Air powder abrasive Subcutaneous, retropharynx, pneumomediastinum Cephalosphorin + tazobactam (IV); resolved within 10 days
  1. Cavi-Jet and Prophy-Jet are registered trademarks of Dentsply Sirona, USA; Air-Flow Master is a registered trademark of EMS Dental, Nyons, France
  2. Cx complications, IV intravenous
  3. aCases of peri-implantitis treatment-related emphysema