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Table 1 Description of craniofacial landmarks and reference planes

From: Three-dimensional computed tomography evaluation of craniofacial characteristics according to lateral deviation of chin

PointDefinition
Cr (crista galli)The superior-most edge of the crista galli
Cl (clinoid process)Midpoint between the anterior clinoid processes
Con (condylar superius)The superior-most point of the condylar head; ConR: right, ConL: left
Op (opisthion)Midpoint of the posterior arch of foramen magnum
Po (porion)The superior-most point of the external auditory meatus; PoR: right, PoL: left
Me (menton)The inferior-most point on the symphysis of mandible
Go (gonion)The apex of the mandibular angle; GoR: right, GoL: left
Gf (glenoid fossa)The antero-superior-most point of the glenoid fossa; GfR: right, GfL: left
Or (orbitale)The inferior-most point of the infraorbital rim; OrR: right, OrL: left
Zy (zygonion)The lateral-most point of the zygomatic arch; ZyR: right, ZyL: left
Axial plane (AxP)A plane passing through PoR, PoL, and OrL
Midsagittal plane (MSP)A plane perpendicular to the axial plane including Cr and Cl
Coronal plane (CoP)A plane perpendicular to the axial plane and sagittal planes passing through Op