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Table 1 Comparison of clinical symptoms and incubation time of human coronaviruses [4]

From: Being a front-line dentist during the Covid-19 pandemic: a literature review

Human coronavirusesClinical symptomsIncubation periodRefs.
229EGeneral malaise, headache, nasal discharge, sneezing, sore throat, fever and cough (10–20% of patients)2–5 days[9,10,11]
OC43General malaise, headache, nasal discharge, sneezing, sore throat, fever and cough (10–20% of patients)2–5 days[9, 11,12,13]
NL63Cough, rhinorrhea, tachypnea, fever, hypoxia, obstructive laryngitis (croup)2–4 days[14,15,16,17,18,19]
HKU1Fever, running nose, cough, dyspnea2–4 days[20,21,22]
SARS-CoVFever, myalgia, headache, malaise, chills, non-productive cough, dyspnea, respiratory distress, diarrhea (30–40% of patients)2–11 days[14,15,16,17,18,19]
MERS-CoVFever, cough, chills, sore throat, myalgia, arthralgia, dyspnea, pneumonia, diarrhea and vomiting (one third of patients), acute renal impairment2–13 days[15, 23, 24]
2019-nCoVMalaise, fever, dry cough, cough, dyspnea, myalgia, fatigue1–14 days[25,26,27,28]