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Table 1 Anatomical landmarks

From: Quantification of three-dimensional facial asymmetry for diagnosis and postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery

LandmarkDefinition
Landmarks as reference pointsS (sella)Center of the pituitary fossa
N (nasion)Nasofrontal suture at the midline
MidZ (midpoint of Z)Midpoint of the line between both Z points
Z pointThe most inferior point on the zygomaticomaxillary suture
Po (porion)The most superior point of the external auditory meatus
Landmarks as midsagittal measurement pointsANSAnterior nasal spine
U1The superior of the contact point between the upper central incisors
L1The superior of the contact point between the lower central incisors
B pointThe deepest point in the bony concavity in the mandibular midline
Me (menton)The lowest border of the mandible
Landmarks as bilateral measurement pointsOr (orbitale)The lowest points of the orbital rim
Co (condylion)The most superior points of the condyles
GonionThe most inferior and posterior points at the angles of the mandible
U6The central points of the pulp cavity at the upper first molar
L6The central points of the pulp cavity at the lower first molar