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Table 2 Patient demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes

From: Facial fractures and associated injuries in high- versus low-energy trauma: all are not created equal

 Energy mechanism P value
 Low (n = 98)High (n = 25) 
Age (SD)132.4 (12.6)4.9 (13.1)0.489
Number of males (%)287 (88.8)19 (76.1)0.18
History of osteoporosis (%)20/97 (0)0 (0)NA
Pre-injury steroid use (%)21/97 (1)0 (0)1
Pre-injury tobacco use (%)226/97 (27)5 (20)0.661
Pre-injury anticoagulant use (%)20 (0)2 (8)0.053
Calcium levels (SD)19.0 (0.7), n = 959.0 (0.6)0.819
Albumin levels (SD)14.3 (0.4), n = 954.3 (0.7)0.211
Positive ethanol (%)244/82 (54)5/24 (22)0.012*
Hospital LOS—days (SD)14 (4), n = 6714 (12), n = 23< 0.001*
ICU LOS—days (SD)14 (3), n = 1312 (10), n = 150.011*
ICU admittance (%)213 (13)15 (60)< 0.001*
Needing ventilator (%)28 (8)12 (48)< 0.001*
Days on ventilator (SD)14.7 (6.5)10.7 (7.7)0.081
ISS (SD)17.5 (6.3)16.8 (9.8)< 0.001*
GCS (SD)114.2 (2.1)11.7 (4.2)0.002*
Mortality (%)21 (1)1 (4)0.367
  1. 1Two-sample Mann-Whitney U test
  2. 2Fisher’s exact T test