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Table 1 Summary of characteristics for patients with craniofacial chondroblastomas (from 11 reports)

From: A large invasive chondroblastoma on the temporomandibular joint and external auditory canal: a case report and literature review

Author (year) Age/ sex Site Size (mm) Symptoms Surgical methods Reconstruction Recurrence
(follow-up period)
Cares et al. (1971) [9] 30/F • Fronto-zygomatic area
• Anterior superior EAC
• Not described • Temporal area swelling
• Plugged ear sensation
• Conductive hearing loss
• 1st OP: curettage
• 2nd OP: excision
(1 month after 1st OP)
• Not described No recurrence
(2 years)
Longo et al. (1999) [10] 27/M • TMJ
• Mandibular condyle
• Temporal bone
• Not described • TMJ swelling
• Mouth opening deviation
• Subtotal excision
(extended pre-auricular, temporal approach)
• Not described No recurrence
(1 year)
Watanabe et al. (1999) [11] 43/F • TMJ
• Temporal bone
• Middle ear
• EAC
• 15 x 20 • Chronic otitis media
• Conductive hearing loss
• Complete excision
(retro-auricular approach)
• Surgical defect
(Temporal muscle flap)
No recurrence
(4 years)
Toro et al. (2005) [12] 57/F • TMJ
• Mandibular condyle
• 20 x 20 • TMJ swelling
• Mouth opening deviation
• TMJ clicking
• Complete excision
(pre-auricular approach to deep sub-fascia)
• Not described No recurrence
(1 year)
Bian et al. (2005) [13] 38/M • Temporal bone
• Zygomatic arch
• 30 • Temporal area swelling
• Conductive hearing loss
• Complete excision
(middle cranial fossa approach)
• Not described No recurrence
(1.25 years)
Kim et al. (2015) [14] 49/F • Mandibular condyle • 20 • TMJ swelling
• Pre-auricular pain, swelling
• Trismus
• Complete excision
(pre-auricular approach)
• Not described No recurrence
(8 years)
Liu et al. (2015) [15] 27/F • Clivus
• Carotid canal
• 28 x 20 x 19 • Headache
• Diplopia
• Facial dysesthesias
• Complete excision
• Endoscopic endonasal approach
• Surgical defect
(nasoseptal mucosal flap)
No recurrence
(3 months)
Hiraumi et al. (2016) [16] 64/M • TMJ
• Middle cranial fossa
• Superior semicircular canal
• Foramen spinosum
• Facial nerve
• Otic capsule
• Not described • Vertigo • Complete excision
(transpetrosal-transzygomatic approach)
• Eardrum, EAC
(temporal fascia flap)
• Surgical defect
(abdominal fat)
No recurrence
(5 years)
Marano et al. (2019) [17] 46/M • Mandibular condyle • 21 x 10 x 17 • TMJ pain, swelling • Complete excision
(pre-auricular approach)
• Not described No recurrence
(1.5 years)
Long et al. (2020) [18] 40/F • Sphenoid sinus • 22 x 20 • Dizziness
• Headache
• Complete excision
• Rhinoscopic surgery
• Not described Not described
Tomioka et al. (2020) [19] 66/F • TMJ
• Temporal bone
• Middle cranial fossa
• EAC
• 35 x 25 x 20 • Hearing loss
• Mouth opening deviation
• TMJ clicking
• Complete excision
(modified auriculotemporal approach via U-shaped incision)
• Endoscopic surgery
• Parietal bone
(temporal muscle flap, titanium mesh plate)
No recurrence
(5.5 years)
Present case 52/M • TMJ
• Mandibular condyle
• Temporal bone
• EAC
• 28 x 28 x 37 • TMJ swelling, asymmetry
• TMJ pain on palpation
• Mouth opening deviation
• Eyebrow paralysis
• Complete excision
(pre-auricular approach)
• Anterior wall of the EAC
(temporal fascia flap)
• Surgical defect
(inguinal fat graft, TPFF)
No recurrence
(1.5 years)
  1. TMJ, temporomandibular joint; EAC, external auditory canal; OP, operation