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Table 3 Treatment of TMD symptoms in patients with dentofacial deformity

From: Orthognathic surgery and temporomandibular joint symptoms

Reversible treatment of TMD Irreversible treatment of TMD
Patient Education Trigger Point Injections
Medications: Botox
 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (anti-RA meds) Arthrocentesis
 Muscle relaxants Arthroscopy
 Antidepressants Open Arthroplasty
Physical Therapy  
 ROM exercised  
 Passive stretching  
 Spray and stretch  
 Ultrasound  
 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation  
Occlusal Splint Therapy  
  1. From Nale JC. Orthognathic Surgery and the Temporomandibular Joint Patient. Oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of North America 2014;26:551–64 [116].