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Table 3 Anatomical limits of the airway

From: Change of the airway space in mandibular prognathism after bimaxillary surgery involving maxillary posterior impaction

Region Limit Anatomical
Nasopharynx Anterior Frontal plane perpendicular to FH passing through PNS
Posterior Soft tissue contour of the pharyngeal wall
Upper Soft tissue contour of the pharyngeal wall
Lower Plane parallel to FH passing through ANS and extended to the posterior wall of the pharynx
Oropharynx Anterior Frontal plane perpendicular to FH passing through PNS
Posterior Soft tissue contour of the pharyngeal wall
Upper Plane parallel to FH passing through ANS and extended to the posterior wall of the pharynx
Lower Plane parallel to FH plane passing through C2ai
Hypopharynx Anterior Frontal plane perpendicular to FH passing through PNS
Posterior Soft tissue contour of the pharyngeal wall
Upper Plane parallel to FH plane passing through C2ai
Lower Plane parallel to FH connecting the base of the epiglottis to the entrance to the esophagus
  1. Abbreviations: FH Frankfort horizontal plane, ANS anterior nasal spine, PNS posterior nasal spine, C2ai anteroinferior point of secondary cervical vertebrae