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Table 3 Summary of domestic studies with evidence level 3

From: Clinical reliability of zirconium abutment in implant restorations in the English and Korean literature

Author Study type Patient (person)/implant (unit)/restoration Implant location Prosthesis type Zirconium abutment F/U period Outcome Conclusion
Kim et al. [34] Prospective cohort 213/611/328 Anterior/posterior Single unit/multi-units with pontic Alumina-toughened zirconium abutment (ZirAce) 3.6 years (1–12.8 years) Survival rate of zirconium abutments
- 98.3% (single)
- 99.2% (pontic without multi-units)
- 96.1% (pontic with multi-units)
Complication rate
- 19.7% (single)
- 3.9% (pontic without multi-units)
- 3.8% (pontic with multi-units)
Zirconium abutments have an excellent long-term survival rate.
For the restoration of a single posterior tooth, further studies are required.
Kim et al. [15] Retrospective cohort 65/158/85 Anterior/premolar/molar Single crown/splint crown/bridge Alumina-toughened zirconium abutment (ZirAce) 78 months (60.9–117.5) Zirconium fracture, screw fracture, and screw loosening were not observed for 5 years.
Restoration success rate: 95.3%
Complications occurred after 5 years.
The 5-year use is stable.
Bae et al. [16] Prospective cohort 17/37 Maxilla mandible Not mentioned Zirconium/alumina composite abutment 12 months No abutment
Mean alveolar loss
- Maxilla: 0.56 ± 0.26
- Mandible: 0.68 ± 0.30
Histological examination
- Junctional epithelium Height: 2.09 mm
Width: 0.51 mm
The zirconium alumina composite abutment is clinically stable.