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Table 3 Summary of domestic studies with evidence level 3

From: Clinical reliability of zirconium abutment in implant restorations in the English and Korean literature


Study type

Patient (person)/implant (unit)/restoration

Implant location

Prosthesis type

Zirconium abutment

F/U period



Kim et al. [34]

Prospective cohort



Single unit/multi-units with pontic

Alumina-toughened zirconium abutment (ZirAce)

3.6 years (1–12.8 years)

Survival rate of zirconium abutments

- 98.3% (single)

- 99.2% (pontic without multi-units)

- 96.1% (pontic with multi-units)

Complication rate

- 19.7% (single)

- 3.9% (pontic without multi-units)

- 3.8% (pontic with multi-units)

Zirconium abutments have an excellent long-term survival rate.

For the restoration of a single posterior tooth, further studies are required.

Kim et al. [15]

Retrospective cohort



Single crown/splint crown/bridge

Alumina-toughened zirconium abutment (ZirAce)

78 months (60.9–117.5)

Zirconium fracture, screw fracture, and screw loosening were not observed for 5 years.

Restoration success rate: 95.3%

Complications occurred after 5 years.

The 5-year use is stable.

Bae et al. [16]

Prospective cohort


Maxilla mandible

Not mentioned

Zirconium/alumina composite abutment

12 months

No abutment

Mean alveolar loss

- Maxilla: 0.56 ± 0.26

- Mandible: 0.68 ± 0.30

Histological examination

- Junctional epithelium Height: 2.09 mm

Width: 0.51 mm

The zirconium alumina composite abutment is clinically stable.