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Table 6 Comparison of the average facial measurements of the Kenyan male (KM) face and Kenyan female (KF) face with North American whites. NAW data from Farkas et al. [8, 14, 20] and the African-American data from Farkas et al. [8] using one-sample t test

From: Normative anthropometry and proportions of the Kenyan-African face and comparative anthropometry in relation to African Americans and North American Whites

  KM mean (SD) (n = 36) NAW mean (SD) difference (n = 109) P value AA mean (SD) difference (n = 50) P value
Kenyan male face
Vertical measurements
Forehead height I (tr-g) 61.4 (3.2) 4.4 (3.2) < 0.001 − 0.4 (3.2) 0.496
 Forehead height II (tr-n) 72.2 (2.3) 5.1 (2.3) < 0.001 0.2 (2.3) 0.576
 Midface height (g-sn) 64.8 (6.5) − 2.4 (6.5) 0.033 − 4.0 (6.5) 0.001
 Nasal height (n-sn) 51.0 (1.9) − 3.8 (1.9) < 0.001 − 0.9 (1.9) 0.005
 Lower face height (sn-me) 76.4 (3.6) 3.8 (3.6) < 0.001 − 2.6 (3.6) < 0.001
 Upper lip height (sn-sto) 25.5 (1.3) 3.1 (1.3) < 0.001 − 0.7 (1.3) 0.004
 Lower lip height (sto-sl) 22.5 (1.9) 2.8 (1.9) < 0.001 0.4 (1.9) 0.230
 Philtrum height (sn-ls) 15.5 (1.3) − 0.4 (1.3) 0.072 − 0.9 (1.3) < 0.001
 Lateral commissure height 23.5 (2.6)     
 Upper vermillion height (Is-sto) 13.7 (1.3) 5.9 (1.3) < 0.001 0.1 (1.3) 0.726
 Lower vermillion height (sto-li) 13.8 (0.9) 4.5 (0.9) < 0.001 0.0 (0.9) 0.903
 Chin height (fml-me) 36.5 (3.1) 3.4 (3.1) < 0.001 0.5 (3.1) 0.307
 Lower lip to labiomental fold 12.1 (1.9) 0.2 (1.9) 0.473 0.3 (1.9) 0.021
 Labiomental fold 8.2 (1.9)     
 Lower lip to menton 56.2 (3.5) 8.2 (3.4) < 0.001 − 1.3 (3.5) 0.037
 Nasion to menton 101.8 (3.6)     
Horizontal measurements
 Intercanthal distance (en-en) 32.2 (1.9) − 1.1 (1.9) 0.002 −3.6 (1.9) < 0.001
 Eye width (ex-en) 34.0 (3.4) 2.7 (3.4) < 0.001 1.1 (3.4) 0.071
 Biocular width (ex-ex) 98.2 (3.5) 7.0 (3.5) < 0.001 1.4 (3.5) 0.021
 Nasal width (al-al) 43.2 (3.8) 8.3 (3.8) < 0.001 − 1.0 (3.8) 0.139
 Ala curvature (ac-ac) 41.3 (3.1) 8.5 (3.1) < 0.001 1.3 (3.1) 0.019
 Mouth width (ch-ch) 55.9 (3.3) 1.4 (3.3) 0.014 1.3 (3.3) 0.022
 Bitemporal width (ft-ft) 115.3 (3.4) − 0.6 (3.4) 0.273 − 1.0 (3.4) 0.077
 Bizygomatic width (zy-zy) 133.8 (4,6)) − 5.3 (4.6) < 0.001 − 4.9 (4.6) < 0.001
 Bigonial width (go-go) 106.6 (5.9) 1.0 (5.9) 0.312 2.4 (5.9) 0.019
Kenyan female face
Vertical measurements
 Forehead height I (tr-g) 55.4 (3.3) 2.7 (3.3) < 0.001 − 0.3 (3.3) 0.545
 Forehead height II (tr-n) 67.5 (2.9) 4.5 (2.9) < 0.001 0.4 (2.9) 0.423
 Midface height (g-sn) 65.3 (5.7) 2.2 (5.7) 0.027 0.7 (5.7) 0.481
 Nasal height (n-sn) 47.6 (3.1) − 3.0 (3.1) < 0.001 − 1.2 (3.1) 0.029
 Lower face height (sn-me) 65.0 (4.8) 5.2 (4.8) < 0.001 − 2.0 (4.8) 0.013
 Upper lip height (sn-sto) 24.0 (2.5) 3.9 (2.5) < 0.001 − 0.5 (2.5) 0.267
 Lower lip height (sto-sl) 20.7 (1.1) 2.9 (1.1) < 0.001 0.5 (1.1) 0.004
 Philtrum height 13.5 (1.6) − 0.3 (1.6) 0.229 − 0.5 (1.6) 0.052
 Lateral commissure height 22.3 (2.3)     
 Upper vermillion height (Is-sto) 13.4 (0.9) 4.7 (0.9) < 0.001 0.1 (0.9) 0.332
 Lower vermillion height (sto-li) 13.6 (1.0) 4.2 (1.0) < 0.001 0.4 (1.0) 0.031
 Chin height (sl-gn) 34.1 (3.2) 7.1 (3.2) < 0.001 − 1.1 (3.2) 0.046
 Lower lip to labiomental fold 10.6 (1.1) −0.2 (1.1) 0.401 − 0.2 (1.1) 0.401
 Labiomental fold 7.9 (2.8)     
 Lower lip to menton 51.6 (3.4) 8.2 (3.4) < 0.001 − 0.5 (3.4) 0.399
 Nasion to menton 117.1 (5.4)     
Horizontal measurements
 Intercanthal distance (en-en) 32.1 (1.4) 0.3 (1.4) 0.136 − 2.3 (1.4) < .001
 Eye width (ex-en) 33.7 (1.5) 3.0 (1.5) < 0.001 1.5 (1.5) < 0.001
 Biocular width (ex-ex) 94.4 (4.9) 6.6 (4.9) < 0.001 1.5 (4.9) 0.077
 Nasal width (al-al) 40.7 (3.7) 9.3 (3.7) < 0.001 0.6 (3.7) 0.313
 Ala curvature (R – L) 33.5 (2.2) 3.0 (2.2) < 0.001 1.3 (2.2) 0.019
 Mouth width (ch-ch) 52.0 (4.0) 1.8 (4.0) 0.008 − 1.6 (4.0) 0.022
 Bitemporal width (ft-ft) 111.2 (2.5) − 0.3 (2.5) 0.430 − 0.2 (2.5) 0.582
 Bizygomatic width (zy-zy) 130.1 (3.5) 0.1 (3.5) 0.827 − 0.4 (3.5) 0.523
 Bigonial width (go-go) 96.8 (2.9) 2.3 (2.9) 0.001 0.1 (2.9) 0.880