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Table 2 Standard precautions based on CDC and ADA guidelines for dentists on the coronavirus disease [40,41,42]

From: Being a front-line dentist during the Covid-19 pandemic: a literature review

PostponingFollowing the announcement of disease outbreak by international or local authorities, dentists can play a significant role in disrupting the transmission chain, thereby reducing the incidence of the disease by simply postponing all non-emergency dental care for all patients.
Where to treatAll dental care should be provided in an outpatient dental setting with a minimum of six air changes per hour, such as a hospital with dental care services or customized clinics equipped for Covid-19 patients.
Symptoms and historyPrimary non-specific reported symptoms of 2019-nCoV infection at the prodromal phase are malaise, fever, and dry cough. The most commonly reported signs and symptoms are fever (98%), cough (76%), dyspnea (55%), and myalgia or fatigue (44%).
They also may have traveled to one of the countries considered disease hotspots in the prior 14 days or have encountered people from those countries or people who have traveled to those countries.
Some patients may be asymptomatic or have unexpected symptoms such as diarrhea.
How long?Since it is not possible to know the etiology of each patient’s illness, it is crucial to follow the guidelines and precautions at all times during the disease outbreak.
Preparations and arrangementBe alert, identify patients with respiratory illnesses, and provide them a disposable surgical face mask. Isolate them in a room with the door closed. Limit their direct contact with others. Isolated patients must wear masks outside their room.
Isolate suspected patients before and during care to minimize their direct contact with other patients and staff and immediately report any cases to local and state public health authorities.
Transmission prevention considerationTo prevent 2019-nCoV transmission, dental practices should adhere to the infection control protocol, including hand hygiene, providing tissues and no-touch receptacles, and providing face masks for coughing patients.
Dental health care personnel should wear white coats, gowns, head caps, goggles, face shields, masks, latex gloves, and impermeable shoe covers to prevent exposure.
Disposable masks should be substituted between patients or even during treatment if they get wet.
Guidelines updatesSince Covid-19 recommendations may change rapidly with increasing information about the disease, the ADA recommends checking for updates on the CDC’s coronavirus infection control web page for health care professionals.
Health care workersThe CDC strongly recommends that all health care staff, including dentists and personnel, should receive the flu vaccine and that staff with influenza must not report to work.