During mastication, stress situations can occur due to occlusal force, and many authors have reported that alveolar bone resorption can occur due to overload. Therefore, it is very important to reduce the stress on the bone. In this study, the SI disseminated the stress more effectively than the CI. During implant treatment, surgeons encounter various situations restricting the implant. Especially when the alveolar bone is resorbed severely, only short implants can be used. However, because short implants are not very good at bearing occlusal force, wider implants are used. When wide and short implants are used, the remaining bone around the implant is reduced, and also, the crown implant ratio is increased, and longer leverage of superstructure can play a role in causing implant failure (fracture of implants, screw loosening or screw fracture, resorption of alveolar bone around the implant, etc.). To resolve such unfavorable conditions, the GBR technique is usually used for lateral and vertical bone augmentation. However, it requires the very skillful technique of an experienced surgeon, with a high risk of infection or wound dehiscence resulting in less effective bone augmentation.
The SI was introduced to the market in 1948 by Gershkoff , under the name sub-periosteal implant. However, it rapidly disappeared because of a high failure rate and early failures. This sub-periosteal implant was made by casting a Co-Cr-Va alloy, which is not as biocompatible as titanium and which requires a thick structure to bear the stress from occlusal force. Renouard and Nisad studied the difference in success rates by implant length and width, and they reported that short implants were usually used at posterior sites of the mandible and maxilla, with the implants positioned at these sites revealing lower survival rates .
A similar study was undertaken by Olate et al., but they reported that both the width and length affected the prognoses of implants. In this study, the shorter and narrower implants revealed higher failure rates . Barikani also pointed out the limitations of using short and wide implants and recommended minimum bone removal, leaving as much bone remaining as possible . Various types of studies have been performed on the designs of the necks of implants [9, 10].
One of the efforts undertaken to distribute force transmission was attempted to create a wing for the necks of implants. Wing-type implants showed much better results for stress distribution , and these implants are still developing today, with changes in the size, shape, pitch, etc. [12, 13]. The author designed an SI with a fixed length of with 5.6 mm, i.e., an ultra-short implant to solve the current problems when using CIs. The implant used with the SI was the same as the CI in shape, but its length was only 5.6 mm, and its diameter was 4.0 mm for the purpose of fixing the saddle structure to the underlying alveolar bone. This minimally invasive implant could reduce trauma on the bone, and its new design could be used in any compromised situation in which a CI cannot be inserted.
The stress distribution ability of newly designed implants was analyzed with an FEA model. Today, many studies have been performed on the structure of implants themselves and/or biomechanical analyses of the stress on implants, but there has been only limited study of the force distribution to the surrounding bone [14–17]. Stress on the implant due to occlusal force will be transmitted to the surrounding bone, and it will be affected by the implant shape, diameter, and the length. Qian et al. reported that, when lateral force was applied to implants, unfavorable stress was delivered to the surrounding bone, so it is important to use wider implants and to perform deeper insertion . However, this type of implantation is not always possible because of anatomical limitations. Given that the structure of the implant is important to supporting stress , the new design might play an important role in obtaining successful outcomes for the rehabilitation of severely atrophied jaws.